The Indian Financial Companies were subject to strict regulations till 1991 when interest rates were administered and asset allocation was governed through various formal mechanisms and strict controls limited the entry of financial companies. In 1991, the government of India initiated a reform programme for India, which encompassed the financial sector.There were numerous reforms that were intitiated which has led to the emergence of a robust financial sector which easily managed to sidestep the post Lehman global financial crisis in 2008.The post 1991 reforms allowed the deregulation of interest rates,entry of new private sector banks permitted long-term lending institutions like ICICI,IDBI,HDFC to carry out banking activities.The banking sector in India has become increasingly more competitive in recent years. Public sector banks have lost their market share to the more dynamic private sector banks .It is not possible to list out all the Finance Companies in India in one post as there are almost 13000 non-bank finance companies (NBFCs) besides Banks,Insurance Companies,Foreign Financial Institutions etc.This post lists out the Financial Companies in the Gold Finance,Travel,Housing,Infra sectors as well as the Top 10 Banks.

At the time of independence in 1947, India’s capital market was relatively under-developed. Although there was significant demand for new capital, there was a dearth of providers. Merchant bankers and underwriting firms were almost non-existent. And commercial banks were not equipped to provide long-term industrial finance in any significant manner. By the early 1990s, it was recognized that there was need for greater flexibility to respond to the changing financial system. There was a need for these financial institutions to directly access the capital markets for their funds needs.So a number of infrastructure finance companies were set up.Some of them have become fully private like ICICI while others have been partly privatized. like REC and PFC.Besides a number of private companies have recently become big players in the infrastructure financing space like SREI,L&T Finance etc.Note with almost $1 trillion expected to be spent on infrastructure in India over the next 5 years,the scope for these companies is immense if they manage their assets-liabilities in a decent manner

The formal housing finance market of India comprises various segments viz. Housing Finance Companies, Scheduled Commercial Banks, Co-operative Sector etc. These institutions offer a variety of products relating to
direct finance, refinance, micro-finance etc, to the borrowers.The share of outstanding housing loan as a percentage of GDP has risen from 3.4 per cent in 2001 to 7.25 per cent in 2007 (estimated). The share of outstanding housing loan as a percentage of GDP has risen from 3.4 per cent in 2001 to 7.25 per cent in 2007 (estimated).

Housing Finance Companies in India

At present, the need for housing finance in India is largely being fulfilled by the more than 40 Housing
Finance Companies and 27 Public Sector Commercial Banks.The housing finance companies’ market is dominated by large players such as HDFC, LIC Housing Finance Limited, Can Fin Homes, Dewan Housing Finance Limited, Sundram Home Finance and GRUH Finance Limited (now bought by HDFC)

Note corruption is nothing new for the Big 4 firms with another one PriceWaterhouseCoopers caught red handed in the massive billion dollar Satyam corruption scam.Two of the partners of PWC were sent to jail in the fraud which involved cooking the books for almost 8 years.Having a Big 4 auditor is a must for any well known big public company.However the reputation of these Big 4 continues to get besmirched with newer scandals.It does not take a rocket scientist to guess that bribes were involved as rules were circumvented and Corporation Bank top brass was also involved.Government Tenders are a massive hotspot of corruption as they are opaque and powers rest with a few.Lack of transparency results in massive embezzlement of taxpayer money.Corporation Bank.Note Relaince India’s biggest company is facing an investigation along with the oil and gas regulator DGH.Recently LIC Housing Finance one of India’s largest housing finance companies was involved in a scam as well alongwith top official form other PSU Banks for taking bribes.This resulted in a massive stock price fall for a number of these companies.Expect Corporation Bank stock to take a similar dive hurting the shareholders.Investing in the Indian stock market has become more dangerous than ever where a corruption scam hides under every stone.Government companies which are considered safer by investors too are being proved problematic with PSU CEOs now being jailed for scams.India’s largest aluminum company NALCO CEO has been jailed for accepting gold bricks in bribes

Green Self Service Kiosks are set to become ubiquitous in branches run by India’s largest bank State Bank of India.Finance has been greatly been benefited by the Information Technology solution reducing transactions costs and time greatly.Banks in India have been slow to roll out Technology Platforms .India due to the lack of penetration of technology has been far behind with large swathes of its population bereft of access to technology.SBI however has come up with an innovative idea Green Channel Counters (GCCs) which is a low cost solution to reduce costs and improve efficiency.These self service kiosks have a screen,keypad,passbook printers etc through which a customer of the bank can perform most of the functions.This would reduce the need for staffing and also lead to saving of paper.Normally it require a ton of forms to perform various functions like depositing,withdrawing money.However with these kiosks most of it can be done online which would greatly reduce paper usage saving trees as a result.

Proprietary Trading by Foreign Banks and Brokerages has been allowed by the Finance Ministry overruling India’s Central Bank RBI.There seems to be no logical reason given by the Ministry despite RBI objecting saying that it will affect the financial stability and lead to increased speculation in the Indian stock markets.Note Properietary Trading refers to trading in financial assets by investment banks using their money and has come under the regulatory glare in the US.Huge conflicts of interest arise due to this practise as brokerages can indulge in front running and other unethical and illegal acts.Already major investment banks like Goldman have been fined hundreds of millions of dollars over improper trading acts.Proprietary Trading encourages brokerages to mislead and defraud customers as they are generally on the other side of the trades and advising them as well.