The increase in the average temperature of Earth’s atmosphere and oceans is known as Global Warming. It is believed to have started in 1975–80. Because of increased human interference with the ecosystem, there is a rise in the emission of gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide. These Greenhouse gases causes the planet’s lower atmosphere and surface to get warmed by the absorption and emission of infrared radiation by gases in the atmosphere. It is a sustained increase in the temperature levels, great enough to cause changes in the global climate.
The United Nations has formed a group of scientists called the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, or IPCC, which reviews the latest scientific findings and summarizes all the current facts about global warming.
Causes Of Global Warming
The main cause that can be attributed to increase this phenomenon is the rising levels of greenhouse gases produced by human activities such as deforestation and the burning of fossil fuels. About three-fourth of the increased CO2 level has been caused by the burning of fuels, over the past 20 years. The rest of it is caused mostly by deforestation.
Human Activity – With the increasing population, there is a huge demand for food & shelter for human beings. Industrialization, deforestation, and pollution have greatly increased atmospheric concentrations of water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide. People have resorted to clearing lands to build houses & also need land for food cultivation. This has resulted in mass Deforestation all around the globe. Due to clearing of land for human habitations their is a major loss of forests, which would have otherwise absorbed all the CO2 released thereby.
Humans also emit several greenhouse gases responsible for warming in a variety of ways. Most come from the Combustion of fossil fuels in cars, factories and electricity production. Carbon dioxide is the major gas responsible for the most of the warming. Other gases & their major sources are methane released from land & grazing animals, nitrous oxide from fertilizers, gases used for refrigeration and industrial processes. All these greenhouse gases trap heat near Earth’s surface.
Pros Of Global Warming
Global Warming is something that could not have been totally avoided. To keep in pace with the rising population, humans started cutting down trees to satisfy their needs – build homes & do food farming. Where would the masses seek shelter? Global Warming has resulted in the colder regions being more habitable & now there are more options for food cultivation. Arctic, Antarctic, Siberia, and other frozen regions of earth may experience more plant growth and milder climates. Since the temperatures in frozen zones will go down less consumption of energy will be required to warm them. The next ice age may be prevented from occurring.
Though , the process should be done in an efficient way that would cause minimum loss to the environment. Making changes to the way we farm could reduce the gases we emit to the atmosphere.
There are many possible ways to improve the energy and vehicle fuel efficiency, so that less energy has to be produced – like increasing the wind, solar power & other renewable sources, biofuels, natural gas, and nuclear power. Carbon Sequestration is a process to capture the carbon dioxide emitted from fossil fuels and store it underground.
Cons Of Global Warming
Having said that, the effects of Global Warming are very alarming & cannot be neglected at all. Global warming could lead to large-scale food and water shortages and have catastrophic effects on wildlife. We are almost at the edge & immediate attention of everyone is required. Many people and governments are already working hard to cut greenhouse gases, and every single effort will count. There should be mass awareness programs where people can be educated about Global warming, its effects & solutions.
Hottest Times – The rate of warming is increasing. In the recent decades average temperatures have climbed 1.4 degrees Fahrenheit around the world since 1880. 11 of the past 12 years are among the hottest in the last two decades.
Endangered Animal Species - Due to the disappearing habitat, changing ecosystems, and polluted oceans, more than a million species have faced extinction. Arctic ice is rapidly melting. Polar bears and other local plants & animal species are already suffering from the sea-ice loss. Average temperatures in Alaska, western Canada, and eastern Russia have risen at twice the global average. The beautiful Coral reefs are highly sensitive to even a little change in water temperature have suffered the worst & die off. Some butterflies, foxes, and alpine plants have moved farther north to more cooler areas.
Loss of Natural Beauty – Glaciers and mountain snows are rapidly melting. Arctic ice is rapidly disappearing. Ice is melting worldwide, especially at the Earth’s poles. This includes mountain glaciers, ice sheets covering West Antarctica and Greenland, and Arctic sea ice.
Natural Calamities – Some experts are of the opinion that due to extreme weather events disasters such as strong hurricanes, droughts, wildfires, heat waves, and strong tropical storms can also occur become common in many parts of the world.
Food Shortage – The growth of deserts may also cause food shortages in many places.
Sea level Rise – have become faster over the last century. Rises of just 4 inches could flood many South Seas islands and swamp large parts of Southeast Asia.
Loss of Habitat – Some hundred million people live within 1 meter of mean sea level, and much of the world’s population is concentrated in vulnerable coastal cities. In the U.S., Louisiana and Florida are especially at high risk.