Wind Power Plants in India seen a phenomenal growth of around 33% CAGR in the last 5 years and the total capacity at end of 2010 was 11800 MW with most of the capacity installed in the state of Tamil Nadu which is the largest state in terms of Alternative Energy Capacity in India.GWEC has set an ambitious target of 65 GW for Wind Energy in India by 2020 which means an addition of 5 GW each year which seems too high given the wind power potential in India is only around 65 GW.However using low wind speed sites may increase the potential besides the use of offshore wind power in India.A number of Wind Turbine Manufactures in India have set up facilities attracted by the domestic market with Suzlon being the biggest Wind Company in India.
Wind Power Plant Cost in India
The capital cost is slightly higher than fossil fuel power plants but much lower than a solar power plant. For a wind farm, the capital cost ranges between 4.5 crores to 6.85 crores per MW, depending up on the type of turbine, technology, size and location.The Running Cost of a Wind Farm is very low as the fuel cost is zero and operations and maintenance costs are low also.
Wind Power Capacity in Different States in India
- Tamil Nadu 4900 MW
- Maharashtra 2077 MW
- Gujarat 1863 MW
- Rajasthan 1088 MW
- Karnataka 1472 MW
- Madhya Pradesh 230 MW
Total 11800 MW
Note the above capacities are till March 31,2010 and since then the wind capacity has risen by another 1200 MW to reach 13 GW.According to MNRE a total capacity of 13284 MW has been established up to February, 2011, mainly in Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Rajasthan. Wind electric generators of unit sizes between 225 kW and 2.1 MW have been deployed across the country.
Wind Energy Subsidies in India
- Tax incentives – Indian renewable energy companies are entitled to take 80.0% accelerated depreciation on assets employed in renewable energy power generation and benefit from a 10-year tax holiday.
- Generation Based Incentives (GBI) – The Federal Government gives an incentive of 50 paisa per unit of wind power supplied to the grid by independent wind power producers. The incentive is limited to wind farms with a maximum aggregate installed capacity of 4,000 MW.This is over and above the state fixed electricity tariffs for Wind Energy Generation.
- Preferential Tariffs – State electricity regulatory commissions (SERCS) are encouraged to set preferential tariffs for power produced from Wind energy.You can read the detailed tariffs for wind energy at the CWET.
Wind Zone Tariff (Rs./kWh)
- Wind Zone 1 (200-250 W/m2) Wind 5.63
- Wind Zone 2 (250-300 W/m2) Wind 4.90
- Wind Zone 3 (300-400 W/m2) Wind 4.17
- Wind Zone 4 (above 400 W/m2) Wind 3.75
- Renewable Purchase Obligations – This is the Indian name for RPS which means the obligation to purchase a fixed amount of electricity generation from renewable energy sources.Each state in India has coordinated with the Central Regulator (CERC) to fix a RPO level.
- Renewable Energy Certificates (REC) – On January 14, 2010, CERC issued the Central Electricity Regulatory Commission Terms for recognition and issuance of Renewable Energy certificate for Renewable Energy Generation.
- CDM/Kyoto Protocol – Indian Renewable Energy Plant Operators can also benefit from the CERs issued under the Kyoto Protocol’s Clean Development Mechanism (CDM).This improves the project returns and is a form of developed country funds transfer to developing countries in reducing carbon emissions.
List of Major Wind Farms in India
|Power Plant||Producer||Location||State||Total Capacity (MW)|
|Vankusawade Wind Park||Suzlon Energy||Satara||Maharashtra||259|
|Cape Comorin||Aban Loyd Chiles Offshore||Kanyakumari||Tamil Nadu||33|
|Kayathar Subhash||Subhash||Kayathar||Tamil Nadu||30|
|Muppandal Wind||Muppandal Wind Farm||Muppandal||Tamil Nadu||22|
|Gudimangalam||Gudimangalam Wind Farm||Gudimangalam||Tamil Nadu||21|
|Puthlur RCI||Wescare (India)||Puthlur||Andhra Pradesh||20|
|Lamda Danida||Danida India /td>||Lamda||Gujarat||15|
|Chennai Mohan||Mohan BreweriesDistilleries||Chennai||Tamil Nadu||15|
|Jamgudrani MP||MP Windfarms||Dewas||Madhya Pradesh||14|
|Jogmatti BSES||BSES||Chitradurga Dist||Karnataka||14|
|Perungudi Newam||Newam Power Company||Perungudi||Tamil Nadu||12|
|Kethanur Wind Farm||Kethanur Wind Farm||Kethanur||Tamil Nadu||11|
|Hyderabad APSRTC||Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport||Hyderabad||Andhra Pradesh||10|
|Muppandal Madras||Madras Cements||Muppandal||Tamil Nadu||10|
|Poolavadi Chettinad||Chettinad Cement Corp||Poolavadi||Tamil Nadu||10|
Source – Wikipedia
Future Wind Power Plants in India
- 102.4 MW Sipla Wind Farm will be located at Jaisalmer District (Rajasthan) CLP
- 50.4 MW Narmada Wind Farm at Nallakonda (Andhra Pradesh),CLP
- 200 MW Wind Farm in Tamil Nadu by Techno Electric & Engineering Company Ltd (TEECL)
- Caparo is builing 500 MW Wind Farms in Rajasthan, Gujarat and Maharashtra,has placed a $1.2 billion order with Suzlon
- 56-megawatt Tuppadahalli wind farm by Accionia
- 50MW wind farmAmreli district of Gujarat by Orient Green Power Company
- 84 MW Wind Farm in Maharashtra by Orient Green Power Company
- 33 MW wind farm Vellappaneri Wind Farm by Beta Wind Farm which is a 100 per cent subsidiary Orient Green Power
Guidelines by MNRE to set up a Wind Power Plant in India
The Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy Sources had issued guidelines on 13th July,1995 to ensure healthy and orderly growth of the wind power sector. The guidelines were well received, as a step towards streamlining the development of the wind power sector. The Ministry has reviewed the guidelines on the basis of feedback received and experience from their implementation since their issue.
The revised guidelines are addressed to the concerned Authorities in the States,i.e. the State Electricity Boards (SEBs) and State Nodal Agencies (SNAs) that are responsible for clearance of wind power projects and issue of `No Objection Certificates’ (NOCs). They are also addressed to Financial Institutions, including IREDA, who should carry out appraisal of wind power projects in accordance with the guidelines.
You can read the guidelines for setting up a power plant,getting clearances and regulations in detail at the MNRE website.
No Objection Certificates should not be treated by SEBs/SNAs as a mere formality. It is the first and foremost requirement before a wind power project can be undertaken. It should invariably precede commencement of any work related to the project on site. A Technical Committee should be constituted by the respective SEBs/SNAs to periodically consider and provide time bound clearances, followed by issue of No Objection Certificates.
The concerned State Authorities, namely, State Electricity Boards/State Nodal Agencies, as the case may be, should announce a schedule for capacity additions on a six monthly basis, once in the first week of April and another in October every year in line with power evacuation facilities available or likely to be created at different windy locations in the State. Applications should be invited for wind power projects for each location as per the power evacuation facilities available at the concerned sub-station.
No Objection Certificates should be issued, or financing provided, only to those projects that meet the requirements detailed below:-
1. Detailed Project Reports/Applications for Wind Power Projects: For projects of upto 1 MW capacity, submission of an Application giving details of the project, as per enclosed format (Annexure-I) should be made mandatory. For projects above 1 MW capacity, a Detailed Project Report, prepared by an independent consultant, covering all relevant aspects, including micro-siting (to optimise wind power configuration and layout), selection of equipment, capital cost, cost of generation, energy generation, operation and maintenance, etc. should be made a pre-requisite.
2. Approved Sites for Wind Power Projects: Clearances/ NOCs should be provided only for installations at locations notified by MNES from time to time. SEBs/SNAs should issue the No Objection Certificate only after analysing the wind data to ensure adequate availability of wind at the specific site.
3. Type Approval and Quality System Certification: SEBs/SNAs should issue NOCs only to those projects which involve installation of duly tested and certified quality equipment with a view to optimise energy generation. MNES has drawn up a list of manufacturers with models of wind turbines of unit capacity 225 KW and above that have obtained type approval, including power curve certification, from designated international Test Stations and Classification Societies. The list of manufacturers is given at Annexure-II. The list will be updated by MNES on a quarterly basis.
Submission by the Indian manufacturers of Quality System Certification (ISO-9000 series) of manufacturing and installation carried out through an international qualified body or Classification Society should be made a pre-requisite for the issue of NOC w.e.f. 1.1.1997.
No NOC should be issued for a wind power project which involves the installation of used/second-hand wind turbines imported from abroad.
4. Capital Cost and Cost of Generation: Detailed estimates of the annual energy output should be checked by SEBs/SNAs at the time of clearing the projects in relation to the certified power curve of the machine and the wind speed distribution for the site. NOC should be issued by SEBs/SNAs after careful scrutiny of the capital cost and the cost of generation for optimal utilisation of the potential available at the site.
5. Commissioning of Projects: Commissioning certificate should not be given unless facilities for evacuation of the rated capacity have been provided and the system is properly connected to the grid. The SEBs/SNAs should also ensure that adequate stock of critical spare parts for atleast two years operation of the project have been provided at the time of commissioning to enable sustained operation and generation of optimum power.
6. Grid Parameters: It should be ensured that the projects generate power in accordance with duly laid down grid parameters. A penalty should be levied by the SEBs if the projects fail to achieve the minimum monthly average power factor of 0.85 at the metering point on the wind farm premises. They should disconnect the project from the grid in case the power factor continues to be low. A suitable charge may be levied for reactive power to discourage drawal of reactive power from the grid and to avoid free wheeling of the machines.
7. Performance Monitoring: The submission of a detailed monthly performance report to the SEBs/SNAs, alongwith a copy to MNES, as per enclosed format (Annexure-III) should be made mandatory.
SEBs/SNAs are advised to carry out periodic post commissioning verification to ensure compliance of the various requirements under the guidelines and clearance accorded by them. SEBs and SNAs may carry out regular inspection of windfarms by outside Agencies to ensure that generation is optimal. MNES will also either directly or through suitably designated agencies carry out periodic inspections of the wind farm projects in association with SEBs/SNAs to ensure proper and timely execution and effective operation of the projects. In case of any defaults, the SEBs should disconnect the project from the grid after serving due notice.
The Indian Wind Energy already has the 5th largest installed capacity in the world and is set to grow at a rapid pace driven by investments from the private sector attracted by the generous wind subsidies from the state and central government in India.Most of the Installed Wind Capacity in India is located in the southern and industrial states of the country.The other states like UP,Bihar lacks sufficient Wind Energy Capacity despite having high power tariffs and substantial electricity deficits.It can be said that Wind Power in India is being developed only in the progressive states like Gujarat,Maharashtra and others.To continue to grow at the same rate,the industry needs to diversify geographically but that would need the backward state governments to pull up their socks.